Yesterday, I wrote about a team of Israeli scientists claiming to have found the oldest modern human remains unearthed to date, Israeli Scientist “This Changes the Whole Picture of Evolution”. Today, another team of scientists have supposedly discovered a brand new group of ancient humans that they claim are distinct from any other ancient groups but still interbred with them.
This new group of humans has been named Denisovans due to their discovery in the Denisovans Caves in Siberia. While they have been newly discovered and declared distinct, the scientists that found them are already making the claim that there is evidence that they lived throughout Eurasia alongside Neanderthals and modern humans as long ago as 50,000 years.
After conducting analysis of DNA taken from a tooth and finger bone, the scientists made their determination that the Denisovans are a distinct type of human. The DNA analysis also revealed that this new human was distantly related to Neanderthals and even more distantly related to modern humans.
The prevailing evolutionary theory has had three distinct groups comprised of modern humans, Neanderthals and Flores Man (more commonly known as The Hobbit). To this illustrious group they now want to add the Denisovans. Bogged down in their anthropological quagmire of evolutionary stories, the scientists have now declared that when modern humans first migrated out of Africa that there were four distinct types of humans living on planet earth and three of them showed DNA evidence that they interbred at some level. In other words humans didn’t evolve just once, but randomly evolved four different times in different areas of the world and the product of these random and separate acts of evolution were close enough to allow interbreeding and the production of fertile offspring. Talk about believing in miracles!
Having read this article, it reminded me of an article published earlier this year Adam, Eve and Noah vs Modern Genetics by Dr. Robert Carter. Dr. Carter points out how closely the evolutionary mtDNA map of human dispersion matches the account of human dispersion from Tower of Babel. The only real differences is that the evolutionary model starts in Africa and the biblical account starts in the Middle East (which according to this map, is not that far from each other and we would reverse the arrow to go from the Middle East into Africa), and the dates of those migrations.
Having revealed the similarity of the mtDNA human migration maps, Dr. Carter focuses on the Y chromosome found only in the males along with the mtDNA passed on only from the mother. He claims that there are some very clear implications to be learned by examining them in light of what Scripture tells us.
He starts with pointing out that when God created man, He started with one man and one woman. That cannot be said of the other life forms created on days five and six as the verses in Genesis 1 do not tell us how many of each were created. Starting with only one pair of humans this automatically places an initial limit to the amount of diversity among the people living now.
Dr. Carter also poses the possibility that God performed the first human clone when he took the rib from Adam and used it to form Eve. That means that Eve would have the same DNA as Adam, except that God substituted a second X chromosome for Adam’s Y chromosome, resulting in Eve being female. Again, keep in mind that Dr. Carter only posits this as a possibility to be considered since God did use Adam’s flesh to make Eve. However, if Eve was not a clone and God gave her a completely different set of DNA than what He gave Adam that would actually quadruple the possible combinations of diversity in their immediate offspring and provided enough variation as is found among humans living today minus all of the mutations that have occurred in the past 6000 years.
Only 10 generations after Adam, we come to the Flood which created a huge genetic bottleneck in human genetics. Here we have 2 key verses:
Gen. 7:7 – And Noah and his sons and his wife and his sons’ wives with him went into the ark to escape the waters of the flood.
Gen. 9:18-19 – The sons of Noah who went forth from the ark were Shem, Ham, and Japheth. (Ham was the father of Canaan.) These three were the sons of Noah, and from these the people of the whole earth were dispersed.
From these passages, we can safely deduce that the human genomes that came off the Ark consisted of 1 Y chromosome, 3 different sets of mtDNA and 8 X chromosome lineages.
Noah obviously passed his Y chromosome on to his three sons from whom the whole earth would be populated from. As Noah was only the 10th generation from Adam who would have had a pure non-mutated Y chromosome, the amount of mutations contained in Noah’s Y chromosome would most likely have been minimal. If there had been any Y chromosome mutations prior to the Flood, all but those carried by Noah and passed on to his three sons would have been wiped out, leaving us only 1 Y chromosome to be passed on to every man born since.
Even evolutionary scientists admit that there does not seem to be any ancient or highly mutated Y chromosome as they expected. They also admit that Y chromosomes throughout the world share a fair amount of similarity. This similarity provides a bit of difficulty for them as it does not fit into the accepted evolutionary theory. As a result, they have tried to invoke such things as a higher reproductive variance among men than in women, a greater degree of gene conversion in the Y chromosomes or even some sort of selective sweep which could have eliminated other male lineages, leaving only 1 traceable Y chromosome lineage to be found in all of the living men in the world today.
As for the mtDNA, there were four sets that came off the Ark but only three of those were of importance. The Bible does not record Noah’s wife as having any other children after departing from the Ark and Genesis 9:19 says that the whole earth was populated by Noah’s three sons. This would mean that the only mtDNA to be passed on to the rest of mankind would have come from the wives of Noah’s sons and not from Noah’s wife. Coincidentally evolutionists have determined that there are 3 main lineages of mtDNA that exists throughout the world today. They have named these lineages ‘M’, ‘N’ and ‘R’ and claim that they all came out of Africa. Interestingly, the difference between the 3 lineages consists of only a relatively small number of mutations. Dr. Carter pointed out that there are only about 8 mutations out of the 16,500 letters in the mitochondrial DNA between lineages M and N. N and R are only separated by 1 mutation suggesting that they were very closely related, perhaps even sisters. The mtDNA lineages not only fit the biblical record but also provide us with a glimpse that there were most likely very few mutations prior to the Flood.
As for the X chromosome, Noah’s wife carried 2, and each of the wives of Noah’s sons carried 2, making a total of 8 possible X chromosomes that would have been passed on to the rest of mankind. Starting with 8 X chromosomes and knowing that they readily recombine in females, the amount of genetic diversity that could be passed on to the rest of the world would be very sizeable.
When the human genome was decoded and then comparisons were made from individuals from a number of different ethnic backgrounds, evolutionists were again surprised when the amount of total diversity within the current human population turned out to be considerably less than expected. This is when they invoked some kind of disastrous bottleneck that nearly wiped out the human race. Yet when you realize that the human race started out with only two people 6,000 years ago and 1450 years later did go through a disastrous bottleneck known as the Genesis Flood all of the evidence falls right into place and makes perfect sense.
Now take into consideration the account of the Tower of Babel in Genesis 11:
Gen. 11:1 – Now the whole earth had one language and the same words
Gen. 11:4 – Then they said, “Come, let us build ourselves a city and a tower with its top in the heavens, and let us make a name for ourselves, lest we be dispersed over the face of the whole earth.”
Gen. 11:7-9 – Come, let us go down and there confuse their language, so that they may not understand one another’s speech.” So the LORD dispersed them from there over the face of all the earth, and they left off building the city.
After the Flood, the descendents of Shem, Ham and Japheth settled in one general location on plain of Shinar. As the population grew, there was widespread intermarrying amongst the three Noahic lines. Rather than disperse as God had commanded, they decided to build a tower to the heavens in defiance. God promptly punished them for disobeying Him took it upon Himself to disperse the people. When God dispersed the people from Babel, He used languages to paternally sort out the different descendents of Noah’s three sons. In turn, this would also have sorted out the Y chromosome and dispersed them in different geographical regions. The intermarrying would account for the mixing of the mtDNA which helps to explain why there is so little differences between the three lines.
The central population of Babel also helps to explain why there is such a basic culture similarity between peoples from all over the world. These similarities can be seen in pyramid building, common flood legends, and the genealogical histories of non-Christian peoples that trace their lines back to one of the sons of Noah, such as some of the royal lines of northern Europe going back to Japheth.
Lastly, Genesis 9 and 10 gives us what is known as the Table of Nations which is a record of the post-Babel tribes and where they migrated to. While it gives us a hint of who went were, we have to realize that the account is limited in that it was scribed in one central geographic area and does not account for all of the areas dispersed to. Additionally, it was an account written at one particular point in time, and may not account for the further dispersion that continued to take place afterwards.
In conclusion, evolution is always changing it FACTS about human origins. Every time the evidence doesn’t fit their theories, they make up just-so-stories to make them fit. Whether a claim of a 400,000 year old human fossil to there being 4 distinct ancient human groups none of it adds up or makes sense when it is all grouped together. When you start with a number of unprovable assumptions upon which you build your tower of belief, it eventually becomes undefendable and will all come tumbling down sooner or later.
However, when we examine all of the evidence and scientific claims, they only make sense when interpreted in light of the biblical account of human history. We know that there was only one original human kind consisting of 2 individuals, not 4 and that they existed a mere 6000 years ago, not hundreds of thousands of years ago. The genetic facts of the Y and X chromosomes and mtDNA support what we read in the accounts of Genesis. The fact that most of these ancient human groups interbred with each other is further proof that we are all descendants of the same common ancestors: first Adam and Eve and secondly Noah and his wife. When you start with the rock solid truth of God’s Word, all of the evidence fits perfectly and makes sense. Your tower of belief will continue to stand strong and firm and is easily defendable.
Carter, Robert W., Adam, Eve and Noah vs Modern Genetics, Creation.com, May 11, 2010.
Ghosh, Pallab, Ancient humans, dubbed ‘Denisovans’, interbred with us, BBC News, Dec. 22, 2010.