Georgia map showing the study area near Americus.

Abstract: Uniformitarian scientists define their stratigraphic column using fossils linked to type sections, with the expectation that the rock record should exhibit evolutionary trends in its strata. However, such is often not the case. A significant portion of the “Tertiary” section exposed along road cuts and in open-pit mines near Americus, Georgia is barren of both body fossils and trace fossils. Hence, there is sparse evidence to support the assertion that the strata reflect millions of years of evolution. Instead, these sediments exhibit features suggesting high-energy deposition. The field data are more amenable to an interpretation within the young-Earth Flood framework.


Modern stratigraphy has codified rules for mapping and age-dating strata in the North American Stratigraphic Code (1983) and the International Stratigraphic Guide (Salvador, 1994). Field geologists apply these rules to determine the proper sequence of strata and their corresponding agedates. The paleontologic contents (e.g., trace and body fossils) of the various rock layers are crucial for defining the stratigraphic position and ages of the rocks, because uniformitarian scientists believe that history can be measured by evolution, documented by fossils contained in the sediments.

Most strata appear to have been deposited in a subaqueous marine settings. Uniformitarians insist that life has been evolving for hundreds of millions of years. That much life over that much time should have left plentiful body and trace fossils throughout the rock record. However, this is not always true. In fact, the vertical rock record for any given location typically contains few fossils, and those are usually concentrated in specific zones or along bedding contacts, and not evenly distributed throughout the column. Uniformitarian scientists do admit the paucity (perceived or otherwise) of paleontological content from sedimentary strata (Lawrence, 1968; Stephens et al., 1973), but explain it away with a variety of ad hoc interpretations in order to defend their assumptions of evolution and deep-time. It is hard to argue support for a model or concept from nonexistent data. To invoke special conditions to explain the loss of data is not good science.

Because uniformitarians emphasize pigeonholing strata within their geologic column (Reed and Froede, 2003; for a discussion of the difference between the conceptual uniformitarian column and the physical rock record), there is little emphasis placed on sedimentary structures and their hydraulic implications. For example, evidence of rapid, high-energy deposition is seldom carried to its logical conclusion by uniformitarians and assigned to local catastrophes. Creationists find sedimentary indicators of hydraulic conditions more relevant.

Southwestern Georgia displays a number of interesting outcrops of the Fall Line Hills District, in the East Gulf Coastal Plain Section (Clark and Zisa, 1976), a wedge of mostly marine sediments that thickens out onto the continental shelf. Its sediments supposedly record eustatic rises and falls between the late Mesozoic and the late Cenozoic eras. Recently, several Tertiary exposures were investigated in the region surrounding Americus, Georgia (Cocker and Costello, 2003). The period of uniformitarian time reflected by these sediments is immense, but details of the section appear to favor a young-earth catastrophic interpretation….

Continue Reading on