Scientists believed and taught for ages that only gene-coding DNA (which is a small fraction of DNA in human and other genomes) was functional. All other DNA was “junk” leftovers from a long evolutionary past. But recent studies have shown that non-coding DNA actually carries useful and vital coded instructions.1 Many of these instructions concern the regulation of gene expression. From an engineering perspective, it makes sense that more information would be required to regulate cell processes than to simply perform them. For life to live, communication systems must detect what the cell needs and then notify the correct components within the cell regarding what to do, when, and for how long. ….

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