I am indebted to geneticist Matthew Rainbow (who does not share my view of origins) for having brought the burgeoning field of fruitfly (Drosophila  melanogaster) morphogenesis to my attention. These morphogenetic genes demonstrate a complexity and integration that stagger the imagination. This subject can be studied further by consulting any modem textbook in genetics or embryology. In a search of library sources, one will also find that literally hundreds of entries on this topic exist, most of them having been produced in the last ten years. Both the design features of Hox genes that workers have understood, and also some unexplained mysteries surrounding them, fit with the creationist views expressed in my earlier articles. 1,2

Morphogenetic genes — a “cascade”

It is impressive to learn that products of the maternal effect genes formed by nurse cells surrounding the egg actually confer on that egg a front-to-back and a dorsal-to-ventral polarity, even before the egg begins its division. The  transcription product of the  dorsal  gene, for example, paves the way for the dorsal parts of the embryo to develop later and in a different manner than the ventral parts. Reviewing this topic, Snustad, Simmons, and Jenkins 3 pointed to a lethal mutation which knocks out the dorsal gene.

The product of another Drosophila nurse cell gene called  nanos  accumulates at the posterior end of the egg. The nanos transcription product prevents the mRNA’s of another gene, called  hunchback, from accumulating in the posterior end of the egg. The end result is that the posterior end of the egg is readied to develop into the embryonic posterior. Mutations that affect the  nanos  gene are also harmful. Gilbert4 noted that such mutations “… result in embryos that have deletions or duplications of heads, tails, dorsal structures or ventral structures.” These mutations lead to imbalance and death, not to beneficial evolutionary adaptations….

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