Last week we decided to devote Wednesday’s feature article (10:00a.m. EDT posting) to the topic of America’s Christian heritage.  Along with the feature article Heal the Nation? Heal the Church First!, we also posted an article from Apologetics Press titled America, Christianity, and the Culture War (Part I).  We received a rather lengthy comment from Doug I.  Doug claimed that America was never established as a Christian nation and in fact was initially established as a secular country.  Due the length of Doug’s comment, I will only address one of the issues raised, namely the intent of the Founding Fathers.  The bulk of my response will consist of the words of the Founding Fathers whom I will allow to speak for themselves about America’s Christian heritage and will conclude with a couple of U.S. Supreme Court decisions in which they ruled that America is a Christian nation.

From Doug:

The phrase “separation of church and state” is but a metaphor to describe the principle derived from the Constitution (1) establishing a secular government on the power of the people (not a deity), (2) saying nothing to connect that government to god(s) or religion, (3) saying nothing to give that government power over matters of god(s) or religion, and (4), indeed, saying nothing substantive about god(s) or religion at all except in a provision precluding any religious test for public office and the First Amendment provisions constraining the government from undertaking to establish religion or prohibit individuals from freely exercising their religions.

Response: The intent of the U.S. Constitution was not to establish a secular government as Doug claims.  He is referring to the First Amendment which states:

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

When the framers of the Constitution and Bill of Rights penned those words, they made it perfectly clear that their intent was to keep America from establishing a state religion like the Church of England in Great Britain.  A number of European nations had established state religions and made any other form of worship illegal.  This is what led to the imprisonment of theologians like John Bunyan.  It also led to many faithful Christians such as the Puritans and Huguenots, leaving their homelands for the new and dangerous wilderness of the American colonies.  Our Founding Fathers learned from this lesson and purposely wrote the First Amendment to prevent the same thing from happening in America.

Today’s secular government, historians and public school systems have intentionally eliminated any references to America’s Christian foundation from the history books.  They replaced them with their own agenda driven inaccurate atheistic fairy tales of what they wished the foundations to have been.  Among those fairy tales are the current teachings that many of the Founders, especially Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson were atheists or deists at best.  So let us read the words of these two men to determine what their religious views were:

For starters, I refer to today’s Quote of the Day by Benjamin Franklin.  In the summer of 1787, the Constitutional Convention met at what is now known as Independence Hall in Philadelphia to form a written constitution to govern the fledgling country.  The Convention was on the verge of giving up and disbanding because of the little progress that had been made and apparent irreconcilable differences between the delegates.  Seeing the pending disaster, Franklin asked for the floor and appealed to the words of Psalm 127:1 as he addressed George Washington, the convention president.

Deists believe that God created everything and then just sat back and had nothing else to do with His creation.  He does not get involved with creation nor does He answer prayer.  Anyone who states that God governs in the affairs of man can not be a deist.  I have read a number of biographical depictions of Benjamin Franklin that claimed he had become a deist later in life.  For those who believe that, they may think twice when they realize that Franklin delivered the speech to the Constitutional Convention at the ripe old age of 81 and died less than three years later.

Franklin was also close friends with George Whitefield, one of the leaders of the Great Awakening.  In a letter to Whitefield written in June of 1733, Franklin wrote:

For my own part, when I am employed in serving others, I do not look upon myself as conferring favours, but as paying debts.  In my travels, and since my settlement, I have received much kindness from men, to whom I shall never have any opportunity of making the least direct return; and numberless mercies from God, who is infinitely above being benefitted by our services.  Those kindnesses from men, I can therefore only return on their fellow men, and} I can only show my gratitude for these mercies from God, by a readiness to help His other children and my brethren.  For I do not think that thanks and compliments, though repeated weekly, can discharge our real obligations to each other, and much less those to our Creator.  You will see in this my notion of good works, that I am for from expecting to merit heaven by them.  By heaven we understand a state of happiness, infinite in degree, and eternal in duration.  I can do nothing to deserve such rewards. . . . Even the mixed imperfect pleasures we enjoy in this world, are rather from God’s goodness than our merit: how much more such happiness of heaven!  For my part, I have not the vanity to think I deserve it, the folly to expect it, nor the ambition to desire it; but content myself in submitting to the will and disposal of that God who made me, who has hitherto preserved and blessed me, and in whose fatherly goodness I may well confide, that he will never make me miserable; and that even the afflictions I may at any time suffer shall tend to my benefit.

The faith you mention has certainly its use in the world.  I do not desire to see it diminished, nor would I endeavor to lessen it in any man.  But I wish it were more productive of good works than I have generally seen it; I mean real good works; works of kindness, charity, mercy, and public spirit; not holiday keeping, sermon reading or hearing; performing church ceremonies, or making long prayers, filled with flatteries and compliments, [despised even by wise men, and much less capable of pleasing the Deity.]  The worship of God is a duty; the hearing and reading of sermons may be useful; but, if men rest in hearing and praying, as too many do, it is as if a tree should value itself on being watered and putting forth leaves, though it never produce any fruit.

Your great master thought much less of these outward appearances and professions, than many of his modern disciples.  He preferred the doers of the word to the mere hearers; the son that seemingly refused to obey his father, and yet performed his commands, to him that professed his readiness but neglected the work; the heretical but charitable Samaritan, to the uncharitable though orthodox priest, and sanctified Levite; and those who gave food to the hungry, drink to the thirsty, raiment to the naked, entertainment to the stranger, and relief to the sick though they never heard his name, he declares shall in the last day be accepted; when those who cry Lord! Lord! Who value themselves upon their faith, though great enough to perform miracles, but have neglected good works, shall be rejected.  He professed that he came not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance; which implied his modest opinion that there were some in his time who thought themselves so good that they need not hear even him for improvement; but now-a-days we have scarce a little parson that does not think it the duty of every man within his reach to sit under his petty ministrations; and that whoever omits them, offends God.  I wish to such more humility, and to you health and happiness; being your friend and servant.[1]

In 1864, Franklin explained his personal views:

I propose at this time to discourse on the providence of God in the government of the world. . . .Agreeing, then, that the world was at first made by a being of infinite wisdom, goodness, and power, which being we call God, the state of things existing at this time must be in one of these four following manners, viz.:—

1. Either he unchangeably decreed and appointed every thing that comes to pass, and left nothing to the course of nature, nor allowed any creature free agency.

2. Without decreeing any thing, he left all to general nature and the events of free agency in his creatures, which he never alters or interrupts; or,

3. He decreed some things unchangeably, and left others to general nature and the events of free agency, which also he never alters or interrupts; or,

4. He sometimes interferes by his particular providence, and sets aside the effects which would otherwise have been produced by any of the above causes.

I shall endeavor to show the first three suppositions to be inconsistent with the common light of reason, and that the fourth is most agreeable to it, and therefore most probably true. . . .Lastly. If God does not sometimes interfere by his providence, it is either because he cannot or because he will not.

Which of these positions will you choose? There is a righteous nation grievously oppressed by a cruel tyrant: they earnestly entreat God to deliver them. If you say he cannot, you deny his infinite power, which you at first acknowledged. If you say he will not, you must directly deny his infinite goodness.

You are of necessity obliged to allow that it is highly reasonable to believe a Providence, because it is highly absurd to believe otherwise.[2]

I have other quotes from Franklin’s own pen that fully demonstrate his personal faith in God and the Bible, but due to the length of today’s article will refrain from adding them here.

Thomas Jefferson has also been portrayed as a deist and responsible for the concept of the separation of church and state.  From the following quotes, you tell me if Jefferson was a deist and desired to have a secular government.

God who gave us life gave us liberty.  Can the liberties of a nation be secure when we have removed a conviction that these liberties are the gift of God?  Indeed I tremble for my country when I reflect that God is just, that his justice cannot sleep forever.

The practice of morality being necessary for the well-being of society, he has taken care to impress its precepts so indelibly on our hearts that they shall not be effaced by the subtleties of our brain. We all agree in the obligation of the moral precepts of Jesus, and nowhere will they be found delivered in greater purity than in his discourses.[3]

In a letter to Benjamin Rush, Jefferson wrote:

Dear Sir,—In some of the delightful conversations with you, in the evenings of 1798-99, and which served as an anodyne to the afflictions of the crisis through which our country was then laboring, the Christian religion was sometimes our topic; and I then promised you, that one day or other, I would give you my views of it. They are the result of a life of inquiry and reflection, and very different from that anti-Christian system imputed to me by those who know nothing of my opinions. To the corruptions of Christianity I am, indeed, opposed; but not to the genuine precepts of Jesus himself. I am a Christian, in the only sense in which he wished any one to be; sincerely attached to his doctrines, in preference to all others; ascribing to himself every human excellence; and believing he never claimed any other.[4]

Now to address the views of the Founding Fathers desire to build America as a Christian nation with biblical principles.  Here is a list of statements made by a number of them supporting this view.  Since Doug seems to base most of his argument on various writings of James Madison, I will start with a quote from the principle writer of the Constitution and President of the United States, the rest of the quotes to follow will be in alphabetic order:

James Madison delivered this address to the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Virginia because they were in the process of enacting a law that established the Christian Religion as the only allowable religion, endorsed by the government.  Madison was against the law because he felt it violated the original intent of the freedom of religion that the colonies were first established upon on.  Note that Madison does not denounce the role of Christianity in governmental actions nor is he against the Christian faith, only that he saw the danger of Virginia’s actions possibly leading to those of Great Britain and its state run church:

James Madison – Signer of the U.S. Constitution and 4th President of U.S.:

Because we hold it for a fundamental and undeniable truth, “that Religion, or the duty which we owe to our Creator, and the manner of discharging it, can be directed only by reason and conviction, not by force or violence.” The Religion, then, of every man must be left to the conviction and conscience of every man; and it is the right of every man to exercise it, as these may dictate…It is unalienable, also, because what is here a right towards men is a duty towards the Creator. It is the duty of every man to render to the Creator such homage, and such only, as he believes to be acceptable to I him. This duty is precedent, both in order of time and in degree of obligation, to the claims of Civil society. Before any man can be considered as a member of Civil Society, he must be considered as a subject of the Governor of the Universe; and if a member of Civil Society who enters into any subordinate Association must always do it with a reservation of his duty to the General Authority, much more must every man who becomes a member of any particular Civil Society do it with a saving of his allegiance to the Universal Sovereign.

…Above all, are they to be considered as retaining an “equal title to the free exercise of Religion according to the dictates of conscience.” Whilst we assert for ourselves a freedom to embrace, to profess, and to observe, the Religion which we believe to be of divine origin, we cannot deny an equal freedom to them whose minds have not yet yielded to the evidence which has convinced us. If this freedom be abused, it is an offence against God, not against man. To God, therefore, not to man, must an account of it be rendered.

…earnestly praying, as we are in duty bound, that the Supreme Lawgiver of the Universe, by illuminating those to whom it is addressed, may, on the one hand, turn their councils from every act which would affront his holy prerogative, or violate the trust committed to them;…

Because we hold it for a fundamental and undeniable truth, “that Religion, or the duty which we owe to our Creator, and the manner of discharging it, can be directed only by reason and conviction, not by force or violence.” The Religion, then, of every man must be left to the conviction and conscience of every man; and it is the right of every man to exercise it, as these may dictate…It is unalienable, also, because what is here a right towards men is a duty towards the Creator. It is the duty of every man to render to the Creator such homage, and such only, as he believes to be acceptable to I him. This duty is precedent, both in order of time and in degree of obligation, to the claims of Civil society. Before any man can be considered as a member of Civil Society, he must be considered as a subject of the Governor of the Universe; and if a member of Civil Society who enters into any subordinate Association must always do it with a reservation of his duty to the General Authority, much more must every man who becomes a member of any particular Civil Society do it with a saving of his allegiance to the Universal Sovereign.

…Above all, are they to be considered as retaining an “equal title to the free exercise of Religion according to the dictates of conscience.” Whilst we assert for ourselves a freedom to embrace, to profess, and to observe, the Religion which we believe to be of divine origin, we cannot deny an equal freedom to them whose minds have not yet yielded to the evidence which has convinced us. If this freedom be abused, it is an offence against God, not against man. To God, therefore, not to man, must an account of it be rendered. …earnestly praying, as we are in duty bound, that the Supreme Lawgiver of the Universe, by illuminating those to whom it is addressed, may, on the one hand, turn their councils from every act which would affront his holy prerogative, or violate the trust committed to them;…[5]

James Madison – Signer of the U.S. Constitution and 4th President of U.S.:

And the belief in a God, all powerful, wise, and good, is so essential to the moral order of the world, and to the happiness of man, that arguments which enforce it cannot be drawn from too many sources, nor adapted with too much solicitude to the different characters and capacities to be impressed with it.[6]

James Madison – Signer of the U.S. Constitution and 4th President of U.S.:

In these my confidence will, under every difficulty, be best placed; next to that which we have all been encouraged to feel in the guardianship and guidance of that Almighty Being, whose power regulates the destiny of nations, whose blessings have been so conspicuously dispensed to this rising Republic, and to whom we are bound to address our devout gratitude for the past, as well as our fervent supplications and best hopes for the future.[7]

James Madison – Signer of the U.S. Constitution and 4th President of U.S.:

The religion then of every man must be left to the conviction and conscience of every man; and it is the right of every man to exercise it as these may dictate.  This right is in its nature an unalienable right.  It is unalienable, because the opinions of men, depending only on the evidence contemplated by their own minds cannot follow the dictates of other men. It is unalienable also, because what is here a right toward men, is a duty toward the Creator.  It is the duty of every man to render to the Creator such homage and such only as he believes to be acceptable to him.  This duty is precedent, both in order of time and in degree of obligation, to the claims of civil society, he must be considered as a subject of the Governor of the Universe.[8]

Alexander Hamilton – Signer of the U.S. Constitution:

In my opinion, the present Constitution is the standard to which we are to cling. Under its banners, bona fide, must we combat our political foes, rejecting all changes but through the channel itself provides for amendments. By these general views of the subject, have my reflections been guided.

I now offer you the outline of the plan which they have suggested. Let an association be formed to be denominated ” The Christian Constitutional Society.” Its objects to be,

1st. The support of the Christian religion.

2d. The support of the Constitution of the United States.[9]

Benjamin Franklin – Signer of Declaration of Independence and U.S. Constitution:

A Bible and a newspaper in every house, a good school in every district,—all studied and appreciated as they merit,—are the principal supports of virtue, morality, and civil liberty.[10]

Benjamin Rush – Signer of the Declaration of Independence:

I believe no man was ever early instructed in the truth of the Bible without having been made wiser or better by the early operation of these impressions upon his mind. . . .

If moral precepts alone could have reformed mankind, the mission of the Son of God into our world would have been unnecessary.  He came to promulgate a system of doctrines, as well as a system of morals. The perfect morality of the Gospel rests upon a doctrine which, I mean the vicarious life and death of the Son of God. This sublime and ineffable doctrine delivers us from the absurd hypothesis of modern philosophers concerning the foundation of moral obligation, and fixes it upon the eternal and self-moving principle of LOVE.  It concentrates a whole system of ethics in a single text of Scripture: “A new commandment I give unto you, that ye love one another, even as I have loved you.”

By withholding the knowledge of this doctrine from children, we deprive ourselves of the best means of awakening moral sensibility in their minds.  We do more; we furnish as argument for withholding from them a knowledge of the morality of the Gospel likewise; for this, in many instances, is as supernatural, and therefore as liable to be controverted, as any of the doctrines or miracles which are mentioned in the New Testament.

The miraculous conception of the Savior of the world by a virgin is not more opposed to the ordinary course of natural events, nor is the doctrine of the atonement more above human reason, than those moral precepts which command us to lover our enemies or to die for our friends. . . .

Contemplating merely the political institutions of the United States, I lament that we waste so much time and money in punishing crimes, and take so little pains to prevent them.  We profess to be republicans, and yet we neglect the only means of establishing and perpetuating our republican forms of government; that is, the universal education of our youth in the principles of Christianity by means of the Bible, for this divine boo, above all others, favors that equality among mankind, that respect for just laws, and all those sober and frugal virtues which constitute the soul of republicanism.[11]

Benjamin Rush – Signer of the Declaration of Independence:

The only foundation for…a republic is to be laid in Religion.  Without this there can be no virtue, and without virtue there can be no liberty, and liberty is the object and life of all republican governments.[12]

Charles Carroll – Signer of the Declaration of Independence:

…without morals a republic cannot subsist any length of time; they therefore who are decrying the Christian religion, whose morality is so sublime & pure, …are undermining the solid foundation of morals, the best security for the duration of free governments.[13]

Continental Congress:

On the 31st of October the Congress passed the following resolution, ” That a Committee of three be appointed to prepare a recommendation to the several States to set apart a day for thanksgiving for the signal success lately obtained over the enemies of these United States.” The members chosen were Mr. Samuel Adams, Mr. Richard Henry Lee, and Mr. Daniel Roberdeau, and thus Massachusetts, Virginia, and Pennsylvania were represented…

IN CONGRESS

November 1, 1777.

Forasmuch as it is the indispensible Duty of all Men to adore the superintending Providence of Almighty God; to acknowledge with Gratitude their Obligation to him for Benefits received, and to implore such farther Blessings as they stand in Need of: And it having pleased him in his abundant Mercy, not only to continue to us the innumerable Bounties of his common Providence;

It is therefore recommended to the legislative or executive Powers of these United States, to set apart THURSDAY, the eighteenth Day of December next, for Solemn Thanksgiving and Praise: That at one Time and with one Voice, the good People may express the grateful Feelings of their Hearts, and consecrate themselves to the Service of their Divine Benefactor; and that, together with their sincere Acknowledgements and Offerings, they may join the penitent Confession of their manifold Sins, whereby they had forfeited every Favour; and their humble and earnest Supplication that it may please GOD through the Merits of Jesus Christ, mercifully to forgive and blot them out of Remembrance : That it may please him graciously to afford his Blessing on the Governments of these States respectively, and prosper the public Council of the whole : To inspire our Commanders, both by Land and Sea, and all under them, with that Wisdom and Fortitude which may render them fit Instruments, under the Providence of Almighty GOD, to secure for these United States, the greatest of all human Blessings, INDEPENDENCE and PEACE : That it may please him, to prosper the Trade and Manufactures of the People, and the Labour of the Husbandman, that our Land may yield its Increase : To take Schools and Seminaries of Education, so necessary for cultivating the Principles of true Liberty, Virtue and Piety, under his nurturing Hand ; and to prosper the Means of Religion, for the promotion and enlargement of that Kingdom, which consisteth ” in Righteousness, Peace and Joy in the Holy Ghost.” [14]

George Washington – Signer of the U.S. Constitution, President of the Constitutional Convention and 1st President of the U.S.:

No people can be bound to acknowledge and adore the Invisible hand which conducts the affairs of men more than those of the United States.[15]

George Washington – Signer of the U.S. Constitution, President of the Constitutional Convention and 1st President of the U.S.:

On April 21, 22, 23, 1891, there was sold at auction in Philadelphia a remarkable collection of Washington relics owned by Lawrence Washington, Bushrod C. Washington, Thomas B. Washington, and J. R. C. Lewis. Among them was found a little manuscript book entitled Daily Sacrifice.

This gem is all in the handwriting of George Washington, when about twenty years old, and is, without exception, the most hallowed of all his writings. It is neatly written on twenty-four pages of a little book about the size of the ordinary pocket memorandum.

The prayers are characterized by a deep consciousness of sin and by a need of forgiveness, and by a recognition of dependence upon the merits and mercies of our Lord. They contain fervent applications for family, friends, and rulers in church and state.

(1) Sunday Morning

Almighty God, and most merciful father, who didst command the children of Israel to offer a daily sacrifice to thee, that thereby they might glorify and praise thee for thy protection both night and day; receive, O Lord, my morning sacrifice which I now offer up to thee;…

(2) Sunday Evening

O most Glorious God, in Jesus Christ my merciful and loving father, I acknowledge and confess my guilt, in the weak and imperfect performance of the duties of this day. I have called on thee for pardon and forgiveness of sins, but so coldly and carelessly, that my prayers are become my sin and stand in need of pardon. . . .

(3) Monday Morning

O eternal and everlasting God, I presume to present myself this morning before thy Divine majesty, beseeching thee to accept of my humble and hearty thanks, that it hath pleased thy great goodness to keep and preserve me the night past from all the dangers poor mortals are subject to, and has given me sweet and pleasant sleep,…

(4) Monday Evening

Most Gracious Lord God, from whom proceedeth every good and perfect gift, I offer to thy divine majesty my unfeigned praise & thanksgiving for all thy mercies towards me. Thou mad’st me at first and hast ever since sustained the work of thy own hand; thou gav’st thy Son to die for me; and hast given me assurance of salvation, upon my repentance and sincerely endeavoring to conform my life to his holy precepts and example. . . .

(5) Tuesday Morning

O Lord our God, most mighty and merciful father, I thine unworthy creature and servant, do once more approach thy presence. Though not worthy to appear before thee, because of my natural corruptions, and the many sins and transgressions which I have committed against thy divine majesty; yet I beseech thee, for the sake of him in whom thou art well pleased, the Lord Jesus Christ,

(6) Tuesday Evening

Most gracious God and heavenly father, we cannot cease, but must cry unto thee for mercy, because my sins cry against me for justice. How shall I address myself unto thee, I must with the publican stand and admire at thy great goodness, tender mercy, and long suffering towards me, in that thou hast kept me the past day from being consumed and brought to nought….

(7) A Prayer For Wednesday Morning

Almighty and eternal Lord God, the great creator of heaven & earth, and the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ; look down from heaven, in pity and compassion upon me thy servant, who humbly prostrate myself before thee, sensible of thy mercy and my own misery; there is an infinite distance between thy glorious majesty and me, thy poor creature, the work of thy hand, …

(8) Wednesday Evening

Holy and eternal Lord God who art the King of heaven, and the watchman of Israel, that never slumberest or sleepest, what shall we render unto thee for all thy benefits; because thou hast inclined thine ears unto me, therefore will I call on thee as long as I live, from the rising of the sun to the going down of the same let thy name be praised,…

(9) Thursday Morning

Most gracious Lord God, whose dwelling is in the highest heavens, and yet beholdest the lowly and humble upon earth, I blush and am ashamed to lift up my eyes to thy dwelling place, because I have sinned against thee; look down, I beseech thee upon me thy unworthy servant who prostrate myself at the footstool of thy mercy, confessing my own guiltiness, and begging pardon for my sins; what couldst thou have done Lord more for me, or what could I have done more against thee?[16]

Gouverneur Morris – Signer of the U.S. Constitution:

Religion is the only solid basis of good morals; therefore education should teach the precepts of religion, and the duties of man towards God.

These duties are, internally, love and adoration; externally, devotion and obedience; therefore provision should be made for maintaining divine worship as well as education.

But each one has a right to entire liberty as to religious opinions, for religion is the relation between God and man; therefore it is not within the reach of human authority.[17]

Gouverneur Morris – Signer of the U.S. Constitution:

This ground of hope in the kindness of that Being, who is to all his creatures an indulgent father, with the cheerfulness of temper, which nature has given to some of her favored children, may make their hearts beat lightly in their bosoms, while those of their more fortunate oppressors shall sink and sicken. For surely the oppressor can never be happy. I flatter myself with the belief, that a great majority of those in France would rejoice at an opportunity to call home their brethren, wandering in proscribed wretchedness through a world, which is to them almost a wilderness. But the day is yet, perhaps, at a distance. Oh God ! it is thy wisdom which hath ordained, and thy hand which heavily hath inflicted this blow, consistent most surely with those just decrees, which we may not presume to measure, nor even dare to know, but yet we know, for we feel, that thy mercy will season to those, who suffer them, the sharpness of these afflictions. Yes, we feel! and it is this consciousness, which, previous and paramount to all reasoning, has diffused through the whole human race, and impressed on the heart of each individual, the same conviction of his own existence, and the existence of God. Yes, we feel! and it is in the strict accordance between our finest feelings, and the principles of the religion we profess, that this stands demonstrated by their evidence to be of divine origin.[18]

Jacob Broom – Signer of the U.S. Constitution (description of Broom’s character):

As it is an accepted fact that “the foundation of all ‘permanent prosperity’ is a right regard for the Divine Being,” it is proper to say that Jacob Broom was a God-fearing man. This being so, it is easy to understand why a man of such natural endowments should be so persevering in enterprise, so indefatigable in industry, so fertile in resources and withal so temperate in all kinds of speech and action as he was. In a letter to his eldest son, James M. Broom, a senior at Princeton College, dated February 24, 1794, he writes, evidently the sentiments of his heart, when he says, “Do not be so much flattered as to relax in your application; do not forget to be a Christian. I have said much to you on this head, and I hope an indelible impression is made.”

Recognizing his Christian character, it is not strange that the Burgesses and Council should associate with him a kindred spirit, David Bush, and appoint them a committee to “draft reports and ordinances on (i), Sabbath desecration; (2), robbing orchards and gardens, and (3), encroachments on streets, &c.” The reports and ordinances were drafted and adopted.[19]

James McHenry – Signer of the U.S. Constitution:

Neither, in considering this subject, let it be overlooked, that public utility pleads most forcibly for the general distribution of the Holy Scriptures. The doctrine they preach, the obligations they impose, the punishment they threaten, the rewards they promise, the stamp and image of divinity they bear, which produces a conviction of their truths, can alone secure to society, order and peace, and to our courts of justice and constitutions of government, purity, stability and usefulness. In vain, without the Bible, we increase penal laws and draw intrenchments around our institutions. Bibles are strong intrenchments. Where they abound, men cannot pursue wicked courses, and at the same time enjoy quiet conscience.

Consider also, the rich do not possess aught more precious than their Bible, and that the poor cannot be presented by the rich with anything of greater value. “Withhold it not from the poor. It is a book of councils and directions, fitted to every situation in which man can be placed. It is an oracle which reveals to mortals the secrets of heaven and the hidden will of the Almighty. It is a power that can eject the heaviest burthen. It is an armory which furnishes a sure defense against oppression and calumny. It is the genuine balm for wounded hearts. It is an antidote to the poisons which lie concealed in the cup of pleasure. It is a mountain from whose summit are seen the height and depth, the bearings and the boundaries of sin and iniquity. It is a fountain of delight which no drought can dry up. It is a country lofty and serene, laid out into beautiful landscapes, the view of which never satiates or wearies. It is an estate, whose title is guaranteed by Christ, whose delicious fruits; ripen every season, survive the worm, and keep through eternity. It is for the purpose of distributing this divine book more effectually and extensively among the multitudes, whose “circumstances render such a donation necessary, that your cooperation is most earnestly requested.[20]

James Wilson – Original member of the Supreme Court’s and signer of both the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution:

Christianity is part of the common-law.[21]

James Wilson – Original member of the Supreme Court’s and signer of both the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution:

It should always be remembered that this law, natural or revealed made for men or for nations, flows from the same Divine source: it is the law of God. . . . What we do, indeed, must be founded on what He has done; and the deficiencies of our laws must be supplied by the perfections of His.  Human law must rest its authority, ultimately, upon the authority of that law which is Divine. . . . We now see the deep and solid foundations of human law. . .

From this short, but plain and, I hope, just statement of things, we perceive a principle of connection between all the learned professions; but especially between the two last mentioned [the profession of Divinity and the profession of law].  Far from being rivals or enemies, religion and law are twin sisters, friends, and mutual assistants.  Indeed, these two sciences run into each other.[22]

John Adams – Signer of the Declaration of Independence and 2nd President of the U.S.:

Statesmen, … may plan and speculate for liberty, but it is religion and morality alone, which can establish the principles upon which freedom can securely stand.  The only foundation of a free constitution is pure virtue; and if this cannot be inspired into our people in a greater measure than they have it now, they may change their rulers and the forms of government, but they will not obtain a lasting liberty.[23]

John Adams – Signer of the Declaration of Independence and 2nd President of the U.S.:

The general principles, on which the Fathers achieved independence, were the only Principles in which that beautiful Assembly of young Gentlemen could Unite….And what were these general Principles? I answer, the general Principles of Christianity, in which all these Sects were United: . . . Now I will avow, that I then believed, and now believe, that those general Principles of Christianity, are as eternal and immutable, as the Existence and Attributes of God; and that those Principles of Liberty, are as unalterable as human Nature and our terrestrial, mundane System.[24]

John Adams – Signer of the Declaration of Independence and 2nd President of the U.S.:

Suppose a nation in some distant region should take the Bible for their only law book, and every member should regulate his conduct by the precepts there exhibited!  Every member would be obliged in conscience, to temperance, frugality, and industry; to justice, kindness, and charity towards his fellow men; and to piety, love, and reverence toward almighty God…What a Eutopia, what a Paradise would this region be.[25]

John Adams – Signer of the Declaration of Independence and 2nd President of the U.S.:

Statesmen . . . may plan and speculate for liberty, but it is religion and morality alone, which can establish the principles upon which freedom can securely stand. [26]

John Adams – Signer of the Declaration of Independence and 2nd President of the U.S.:

The Christian religion is, above all the religions that ever prevailed or existed in ancient or modern times, the religion of wisdom, virtue, equity, and humanity, … it is resignation to God, it is goodness itself to man.[27]

John Adams – Signer of the Declaration of Independence and 2nd President of the U.S.:

And may that Being who is supreme over all, the Patron of Order, the Fountain of Justice, and the Protector in all ages of the world of virtuous liberty, continue His blessing upon this nation and its Government and give it all possible success and duration consistent with the ends of His providence.[28]

John Dickinson – Signer of the U.S. Constitution:

… while Divine Providence that gave me existence in a land of freedom, permits my head to think, my lips to speak, and my hand to move, I shall so highly and gratefully value the blessing received, as to take care, that my silence and inactivity shall not give my implied assent to any act, degrading my brethren and myself from the birthright, wherewith heaven itself “hath made us free.

…I pray God, that he may be pleased to inspire you and your posterity, to the latest ages, with a spirit of which I have an idea, that I find a difficulty to express. To express it in the best manner I can, I mean a spirit, that shall so guide you, that it will be impossible to determine whether an American’s character is most distinguishable, for his loyalty to his sovereign, his duty to his mother country, his love of freedom, or his affection for his native soil.[29]

John Dickinson – Signer of the U.S. Constitution:

The happiness of these Colonies has been, during the whole course of this fatal controversy, our first wish; their reconciliation with Great Britain our next: ardently have we prayed for the accomplishment of both. But if we must renounce the one or the other, we humbly trust in the mercies of the Supreme Governor of the universe that we shall not stand condemned before His throne if our choice is determined by that law of self-preservation which his Divine wisdom has seen fit to implant in the hearts of His creatures.[30]

John Hancock – Signer of the Declaration of Independence:

Whereas . . .these United States are not only happily rescued from the danger and calamities to which they have been so long exposed, but their freedom, sovereignty, and independence ultimately acknowledged.

And whereas . . . the interposition of Divine Providence in our favor hath been most citizens of these United States have every reason for praise and gratitude to the God of their salvation. Impressed therefore with an exalted sense of the blessings by which we are surrounded, and of our entire dependence on that Almighty Being from whose goodness and bounty they are derived; I do by and with the Advice of the Council appoint Thursday the eleventh day of December next (the day recommended by Congress to all the States) to be religiously observed as a day of Thanksgiving and Prayer, that all the people may then assemble to celebrate. . . that He hath been pleased to continue to us the Light of the blessed Gospel;. . . That we also offer up fervent supplications . . . to cause pure religion and virtue to flourish . . . and to fill the world with His glory.[31]

John Jay – First Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court:

Providence has given to our people the choice of their rulers, and it is the duty, as well as the privilege and interest of our Christian nation, to select and prefer Christians for their rulers.[32]

John Langdon – Signer of the U.S. Constitution:

Vain is the acknowledgement of a Supreme Ruler of the Universe, unless such acknowledgements influence our practice, and call forth those expressions of homage and adoration that are due to his character and providential government, agreeably to the light of nature, enforced by revelation, and countenanced by the practice of civilized nations, in humble and fervent application to the throne for needed mercies, and gratitude for favors received.

It having been the laudable practice of this State, at the opening of the Spring, to set apart a day for such denomination, to assemble together on said day, in their respective places of public worship; that the citizens of this State may with one heart and voice, penitently confess their manifold sins and transgressions, and fervently implore the divine benediction, that a true spirit of repentance and humiliation may be poured out upon all orders and degrees of men, and a complete and universal reformation take place: that he who gave wisdom and fortitude in the scenes of battle, would give prudence and direction to extricate us from succeeding embarrassments, build up, support and establish this rising Empire; particularly, that he would be pleased to bless the great Council of the United States of America, and direct their deliberations to the wise and best determinations, succeed our embassies at foreign Courts, bless our Allies, and national Benefactors: that he would always be pleased, to keep this State under his most holy protection.[33]

John Witherspoon – Signer of the Declaration of Independence:

God grant that in America true religion and civil liberty may be inseparable, and that the unjust attempts to destroy the one, may in the issue tend to the support and establishment of both.[34]

Massachusetts Provincial Congress charged to the Minutemen in 1774:

You . . . are placed by Providence in the post of honor, because it is the post of danger. . . . the eyes not only of North America and the whole British Empire, but of all Europe, are upon you.  Let us be, therefore, altogether solicitous that no disorderly behavior, nothing unbecoming our characters as Americans, as citizens and Christians, be justly chargeable to us.[35]

Rufus King – Signer of the U.S. Constitution:

Mr. President I have yet to learn that one man can make a slave of another ; if one man cannot do so, no number of individuals can have any better right to do it, and I hold that all laws and compacts imposing any such condition upon any human being are absolutely void, because contrary to the law of nature, which is the law of God, by which he makes his way known to man, and is paramount to all human control.[36]

Samuel Adams – Signer of the Declaration of Independence:

Our forefathers threw off the yoke of popery in religion: for you is reserved the honor of levelling the popery of politics. They opened the Bible to all, and maintained the capacity of every man to judge for himself in religion. Are we sufficient for the comprehension of the sublimest spiritual truths, and unequal to material and temporal ones? Heaven hath trusted us with the management of things for eternity, … This day, I trust the reign of political protestantism will commence. We have explored the temple of royalty, and found that the idol we have bowed down to, has eyes which see not, ears that hear not our prayers, and a heart like the nether millstone. We have this day restored the Sovereign, to whom alone men ought to be obedient. He reigns in Heaven, and with a propitious eye beholds his subjects assuming that freedom of thought, and dignity of self-direction which He bestowed on them. From the rising to the setting sun, may His kingdom come.[37]

Samuel Adams – Signer of the Declaration of Independence:

THE RIGHTS OF THE COLONISTS AS CHRISTIANS.

These may be best understood by reading and carefully studying the institutes of the great Law Giver and Head of the Christian Church, which are to be found clearly written and promulgated in the New Testament.[38]

Samuel Chase – Signer of the Declaration of Independence and Justice of the United States Supreme Court in 1799:

Religion is of general and public concern, and on its support depend, in great measure, the peace and good order of government, the safety and happiness of the people.  By our form of government, the Christian religion is the established religion; and all sects and denominations of Christianity are placed upon the same equal footing, and are equally entitled to protection in their religious liberty.[39]

Thomas Jefferson – Signer of the Declaration of Independence and 3rd President of the U.S.:

The practice of morality being necessary for the well-being of society, he has taken care to impress its precepts so indelibly on our hearts that they shall not be effaced by the subtleties of our brain. We all agree in the obligation of the moral precepts of Jesus, and nowhere will they be found delivered in greater purity than in his discourses.[40]

Thomas Jefferson – Signer of the Declaration of Independence and 3rd President of the U.S.:

I shall need, too, the favor of that Being in whose hands we are, who led our fathers, as Israel of old, from their native land and planted them in a country flowing with all the necessaries and comforts of life; who has covered our infancy with His providence and out riper years with His wisdom and power, and to whose goodness I ask you to join in supplications with me that He will so enlightened the minds of your servants, guide their councils, and prosper their measures.[41]

William Livingston – Signer of the U.S. Constitution:

It is well known that some have represented me as an Atheist, others as a Deist, and a third sort as a Presbyterian.  My creed will show that none have exactly hit it.  For all which reasons, I shall cheerfully lay before you the articles of my faith.

1.  I believe the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, without any foreign comments or human explanations but my own: for which I should doubtless be honoured with martyrdom, did I not live in a government which restrains that fiery zeal which would reduce a man’s body to ashes for the illumination of his understanding.[42]

William Samuel Johnson – Signer of the U.S. Constitution:

Your first great duties, you are sensible, are those you owe to Heaven, to your Creator and Redeemer. Let these be ever present to your minds, and exemplified in your lives and conduct. Imprint deep upon your minds the principles of piety towards God, and a reverence and fear of His holy name. The fear of God is the beginning of wisdom and its consummation is everlasting felicity. Possess yourselves of just and elevated notions of the Divine character, attributes, and administration, and of the end and dignity of your own immortal nature as it stands related to Him. Reflect deeply and often upon those relations. Remember that it is in God you live and move and have your being, — that in the language of David He is about your bed and about your path and spieth out all your ways, — that there is not a thought in your hearts, nor a word upon your tongues, but lo! he knoweth them altogether, and that he will one day call you to a strict account for all your conduct in this mortal life. Remember, too, that you are the redeemed of the Lore, that you are bought with a price, even the inestimable price of the precious blood of the Son of God. Adore Jehovah, therefore, as your God and your Judge. Love, fear, and serve Him as your Creator, Redeemer, and Sanctifier. Acquaint yourselves with Him in His word and holy ordinances. Make Him your friend and protector and your felicity is secured both here and hereafter.

And with respect to particular duties to Him, it is your happiness that you are well assured that he best serves his Maker, who does most good to his country and to mankind.[43]

U.S. Congressional Ruling:

In 1853, a group petitioned Congress to separate Christian principles from government. They desired a so-called “separation of church and state” with chaplains being turned out of the congress, the military, etc. Their petition was referred to the House and the Senate Judiciary Committees, which investigated for almost a year to see if it would be possible to separate Christian principles from government.

Both the House and the Senate Judiciary Committees returned with their reports. The following are excerpts from the House report delivered on March 27, 1854 (the Senate report was very similar):

“Had the people [the Founding Fathers], during the Revolution, had a suspicion of any attempt to war against Christianity, that Revolution would have been strangled in its cradle. At the time of the adoption of the Constitution and the amendments, the universal sentiment was that Christianity should be encouraged, but not any one sect [denomination].… In this age, there is no substitute for Christianity.… That was the religion of the founders of the republic, and they expected it to remain the religion of their descendants.”

Two months later, the Judiciary Committee made this strong declaration:

“The great, vital, and conservative element in our system [the thing that holds our system together] is the belief of our people in the pure doctrines and divine truths of the Gospel of Jesus Christ.”[44]

U.S. Supreme Court Rulings

1811, People v. Ruggles:

Whatever strikes at the root of Christianity tends manifestly to the dissolution of civil government.[45]

Justice David Josiah Brewer:

No purpose of action against religion can be imputed to any legislation, state or national, because this is a religious people.  This is historically true.  From the discovery of this continent to the present hour, there is a single voice making this affirmation. . . .There is no dissonance in these declarations. There is a universal language pervading them all, having one meaning; they affirm and reaffirm that this is a religious nation.  These are not individual sayings, declarations of private persons: they are organic utterances; they speak the voice of the entire people. . . . These, and many other matters which might be noticed, add a volume of unofficial declarations to the mass of organic utterances that this is a Christian nation.[46]

Conclusion

As you can plainly see from their own mouths and pens, many of America’s Founding Fathers were Christians and intended America to be a Christian nation based upon biblical principles. They also understood that the only lasting source of morality, virtue and necessary aspects to form the nation was the Bible and its Christian teachings.  Did you know that the Founders in their writings and official documents quoted the Bible over 3 times more often than any other source?[47]

Additionally, many states took steps to maintain the Founders’ Christian heritage by acknowledging and thanking Almighty God (Vermont,[48].Connecticut,[49] Maine,[50] Massachusetts,[51] New York,[52] Alabama,[53] Kentucky,[54] Ohio,[55] Indiana,[56] Arizona,[57] Florida,[58] Illinois,[59] California,[60] Texas,[61] Washington,[62] Alaska,[63] Hawaii,[64]).

Some states also protected the freedom of religion and right to worship according to the individual’s faith (New Jersey,[65] North Carolina,[66] Pennsylvania,[67] Vermont,[68] Ohio,[69] New Hampshire,[70]).

Several states even made Christianity a requirement for anyone wanting to hold public office (Delaware,[71] North Carolina,[72] Pennsylvania,[73] ).

The evidence for America’s Christian heritage and foundation is overwhelming and undeniable.  To claim a secular foundation for America amounts to the total disregard for what the Founders own words and writings declare.  I hope and pray that many of you share this article with your family and friends.  Share it with your children and grandchildren as they will not learn America’s true history in the public schools.  Share this with homeschoolers and Christian schools.  Please help us spread the truth about America’s Christian foundation.

References

[1] Benjamin Franklin, Letter to George Whitefield, June 6, 1733, William Temple Franklin, Memoirs of the Life and Writings of Benjamin Franklin, LL.D., Henry Colburn, London, 1818, pp. 1-3.

[2] Benjamin Franklin, A Lecture on the Providence of God in the Government of the World, B.F. Morris, Christian Life and Character of the Civil Institutions of the United States, George W. Childs, Philadelphia, 1864, pp. 131-134.

[3] Robert Byrd, Senator. Message Delivered to Congress on July 27, 1962 (two days after the U.S. Supreme Court outlawed prayer in public schools). Federer. p. 85-6.

[4] Thomas Jefferson, To Benjamin Rush, 21 April, 1803, Albert Ellery Bergh, ed. The Writings of Thomas Jefferson, The Thomas Jefferson Memorial Assoc., 1905, V. 9, pp. 379-381.

[5] James Madison, To the Honorable the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Virginia: A Memorial and Remonstrance, 1785, James Madison, Letters and Other Writings of James Madison, Published by Order of Congress, R. Worthington, New York, 1884, V. 1, pp.162-169.

[6] James Madison, Letter to Rev. Frederick Beasley, Nov. 20, 1825, James Madison, Letters and Other Writings of James Madison, Published by Order of Congress, J.B. Lippincott & Co., 1865, V. 3, pp.503-504.

[7] James Madison, Inaugural Address of James Madison, President of the United States, at His First Term of Office, March 4, 1809, William Hickey, The Constitution of the United States of America, With an Alphabetical Analysis: By an Act of Congress, Philadelphia, 1853, pp. 283-286.

[8] James Madison, Letters and Other Writings of James Madison Fourth President of the United States, R. Worthington, New York 1884, Vol. 1, p. 162 (Published by Order of Congress).

[9] Alexander Hamilton, Letter to James Bayard, April 1802, John C. Hamilton, ed., The Works of Alexander Hamilton, John F. Trow, Printer, New York, 1851, V. 6, pp. 540-543.

[10] B.F. Morris, Christian Life and Character of the Civil Institutions of the United States, George W. Childs, Philadelphia, 1864, p. 134.

[11] Benjamin Rush, A Defence of the Use of the Bible in Schools, American Tract Society, 1830.

[12] Benjamin Rush, Thoughts Upon the Mode of Education Proper in a Republic, Early American Imprints, 1786.; Federer, p. 802.

[13] Charles Carroll, Letter to James McHenry, Nov. 4, 1800, Bernard C. Steiner, The Life and Correspondence of James McHenry, the Burrows Brothers Co., Cleveland, 1907, p. 475.

[14] W. DeLoss Love, Jr., The Fast and Thanksgiving Days of New England, Houghton, Mifflin and Co., Boston, 1895, pp400-401.

[15] George Washington, First Inaugural Address, New York, April 30, 1789.

[16] William J. Johnson, George Washington the Christian, The Abingdon Press, New York, 1919, pp. 23-34.

[17] Gouverneur Morris, Notes on the Form of a Constitutional Government for France. c1791, Jared Sparks, The Life of Gouverneur Morris, Gray & Bowen, Boston, 1832, V. 3, pp. 481-483.

[18] Gouverneur Morris, Diary Entry, August 19, 1796, Jared Sparks, The Life of Gouverneur Morris, Gray & Bowen, Boston, 1832, V. 1, pp. 435-436.

[19] William W. Campbell, Life and Character of Jacob Broom, The Historical Society of Delaware, Wilmington, 1909, p. 27-8.

[20] Bernard C. Steiner, One Hundred and Ten Years of the Bible Society Work in Maryland 1810-1920, The Maryland Bible Society, 1921, p. 14.

[21] James Wilson, Updegraph v. The Commonwealth, Serg, & R. 393,403 (1824), David Barton, The Myth of Separation, Wallbuilder Press, Aledo, TX, 1991, pp. 78-79.

[22] Bird Wilson, ed., The Works of the Honourable James Wilson, (Phila: Lorenzo Press, 1804) vol. I, pp. 103-105.

[23] John Adams, To Zabdiel Adams, June 21, 1776.  Charles Francis Adams, The Works of John Adams, Little, Brown & Co., Boston, 1854, V 9, p. 401.

[24] John Adams, Letter to Thomas Jefferson, June 28, 1813. Lester J. Capon, ed., The Adams-Jefferson Letters. (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1959), pp. 339-340.

[25] John Adams, Diary and Autobiography of John Adams, Belknap Press of Harvard Press, Cambridge, MA, 1961, V. III, p. 9.

[26] Charles Frances Adams, The Works of John Adams Second President of the United States, Little, Brown and Co, Boston, 1854, Vol. IX, P 401, Federer, p. 8.

[27] Charles Francis Adams, The Works of John Adams, Charles C. Little & James Brown, 1851, V. 3, p. 421.

[28] John Adams, Inaugural Address, Philadelphia, March 4, 1797. Avalon Project.

[29] John Dickinson, The Political Writings of John Dickinson, Esquire, Late President of the State of Delaware, and of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Bonsal & Niles, Wilmington, 1801, V. 1, pp. 165-173.

[30] Charles J. Stille, LL.D., The Life and Times of John Dickinson, 1732-1808, J.B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia, 1891, pp. 187-188.

[31] John Hancock, A Proclamation for a Day of Thanksgiving, Signed by Governor John Hancock Nov. 8, 1783, Boston, Massachusetts.  Federer, p. 276-7.

[32] Henry Johnston, Ed. The Correspondence and Public Papers of John Jay, G. P. Putnam’s Sons, New York, 1893, Vol. IV,

[33] John Langdon, A Proclamation For A Day of Public Fasting and Prayer, February 21, 1786, Library of Congress: American History: John Langdon.

[34] John Witherspoon, The Dominion of Providence Over the Passions of Men, 17 May 1776, Rev. Dr. John Rodgers, The Works of the Rev. John Witherspoon, D.D. L.L.D., William W. Woodward, Philadelphia, 1802, V.3, p. 46.

[35] Charles Hudson, History of the Town of Lexington Middlesex County Massachusetts From its First Settlement to 1868, Houghton Mifflin Co, Boston, 1913, pp. 115-6.

[36] Charles R. King, The Life and Correspondence of Rufus King, G.P. Putnam’s Sons, New York, 1900, V. 6, p. 276.

[37] Samuel Adams, American Independence, (Speech Delivered from steps of the State House in Philadelphia on August 1, 1776.

[38] Samuel Adams, The Rights of the Colonists, 1772, William V. Wells, The Life and Public Services of Samuel Adams, Little, Brown & Co., Boston, 1865, V. 1, pp 504.

[39] Samuel Chase, Justice of U.S. Supreme Court, Runkel v. Winemiller, 4 Harris & McHenry, 276, 288, (Sup. Ct. MD. 1799. Federer, p. 101.

[40] Thomas Jefferson, Letter to James Fishback, Sept. 27, 1809. Albert Ellery Bergh, ed. The Writings of Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Jefferson Memorial Assoc., Washington D.C., 1907, V. 12, p.315.

[41] Thomas Jefferson, Second Inaugural Address, March 4, 1805.

[42] William Livingston, Article 46, The Independent Reflector, Theodore Sedgwick, Jr., A Memoir of the Life of William Livingston, J. & J. Harper, New York, 1833, p. 86.

[43] William Samuel Johnson, Commencement Speech, Columbia College, May 21, 1787, Eben Edwards Beardsley, Life and Times of William Samuel Johnson, LL.D., Hurd & Houghton, New York, 1876, pp. 142-143.

[44] David Barton, America’s Godly Heritage, WallBuilder Press, Aledo, TX, 1993, p. 15.

[45] David Barton, America’s Godly Heritage, WallBuilder Press, Aledo, TX, 1993, p. 15.

[46] Justice David Josiah Brewer, U.S. Supreme Court, Church of the Holy Trinity v. United States, 143 U.S. 471 (1892).

[47] David Barton, America’s Godly Heritage, WallBuilder Press, Aledo, TX, 1993, pp. 9-10.

[48] Constitution of Vermont, July 8, 1777.

[49] The Constitution of Connecticut: Preamble, 1818, State of Connecticut, Secretary of State.

[50] Constitution of Maine: Preamble, 1820, Maine Law and Legislation.

[51] Constitution of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts: Preamble, Mass.gov.

[52] The Constitution of the State of New York: Preamble, ny.gov.

[53] Alabama: Constitution of January 7, 1861.

[54] Kentucky: Constitution revised September 28, 1891.

[55] Ohio Constitution 1851.

[56] Constitution of the State of Indiana, November 1, 1851.

[57] Constitution of the State of Arizona, February 14, 1912.

[58] Constitution of the State of Florida, As Revised in 1968.

[59] Constitution of the State of Illinois, December 15, 1970.

[60] California State Constitution, May 7, 1879.

[61] Texas Constitution, 1876.

[62] Washington State Constitution, 1915.

[63] Constitution of Alaska, January 3, 1959.

[64] Constitution of the State of Hawaii, August 21, 1959.

[65] Constitution of New Jersey, Articles XVIII & XIX, 1776.

[66] North Carolina: A Declaration of Rights, Article XIX, Dec. 18, 1776.

[67] Pennsylvania: A Declaration of Rights of the Inhabitants of the Commonwealth or State of Pennsylvania, Article II, Sept. 28, 1776.

[68] Constitution of Vermont, Chapter 1, A Declaration of the Rights of the Inhabitants of the State of Vermont, Section III, July 8, 1777.

[69] Constitution Of the State Of Ohio, 1802, Article VIII, Bill of Rights, Sec. 3.

[70] New Hampshire Constitution of 1784, PT. 1, Article 6.

[71] Constitution of Delaware, Article 22, 1776.

[72] Constitution of North Carolina, Article XXXII, Dec. 18, 1776.

[73] Constitution of Pennsylvania, Section 10, Sept. 28, 1776.

Additional Resources

For You They Signed

by Marilyn Boyer
Endorsed by Christian historian, David Barton of Wallbuilders! Teach your family history, character and Scripture at the same time. This beautiful volume gives you the tools you need to train up young nation-changers.

Revisionist history is exploded as Marilyn chronicles the lives of the Signers of the Declaration of Independence. Our Founders were not atheists and deists, but God-fearing men, many of whom left clear written testimony of their faith in Christ. Read why Jefferson, Franklin, Hancock, Adams and the other Signers appealed to the “laws of nature and of nature`s God” in declaring America free and independent.

By reading about one of the 56 Signers per week, you can give your family more than a year`s worth of exciting “family times.” Learn together about the sacrifices made by these great men for our freedom. Inspire your children to become citizens who will reclaim the Christian heritage of America. A code inside the book gives you access to a companion ebook containing coloring pages for little hands to complete and hang on the refrigerator to learn to identify the Signers, character quality definitions and Scripture verses to learn (one per week,) and Family Fun Quizzes to use every other week to review the information and make it stick.

Perfect for Dad to teach from at family time, or a great resource for a year`s worth of American History study for a student!

A free 180 pg. e-book is available for download with your purchase of For You They Signed. It contains coloring pages of the signers, fun family quizzes to help retain information learned and extra study material. There is a code in your book under “Suggestions for Use” section.

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